Translate this page from English Print Page Change Text Size: Critical thinking is a rich concept that has been developing throughout the past years. The term "critical thinking" has its roots in the mid-late 20th century.
Translate this page from English Print Page Change Text Size: T T T Universal Intellectual Standards by Linda Elder and Richard Paul Universal intellectual standards are standards which must be applied to thinking whenever one is interested in checking the quality of reasoning about a problem, issue, or situation.
To think critically entails having command of these standards. To help students learn them, teachers should pose questions which probe student thinking; questions which hold students accountable for their thinking; questions which, through consistent use by the teacher in the classroom, become internalized by students as questions they need to ask themselves.
The ultimate goal, then, is for these questions to become infused in the thinking of students, forming part of their inner voice, which then guides them to better and better reasoning.
While there are many universal standards, the following are some of the most essential: Could you elaborate further on that point? Could you express that point in another way? Could you give me an illustration? Could you give me an example?
Clarity is the gateway standard. If a statement is unclear, we cannot determine whether it is accurate or relevant.
In fact, we cannot tell anything about it because we don't yet know what it is saying. For example, the question, "What can be done about the education system in America? In order to address the question adequately, we would need to have a clearer understanding of what the person asking the question is considering the "problem" to be.
A clearer question might be "What can educators do to ensure that students learn the skills and abilities which help them function successfully on the job and in their daily decision-making? Is that really true? How could we check that? How could we find out if that is true?
A statement can be clear but not accurate, as in "Most dogs are over pounds in weight. Could you give more details? Could you be more specific? A statement can be both clear and accurate, but not precise, as in "Jack is overweight. How is that connected to the question? How does that bear on the issue?In a seminal study on critical thinking and education in , Edward Glaser defines critical thinking as follows “The ability to think critically, as conceived in this volume, involves three things: (1) an attitude of being disposed to consider in a thoughtful way the problems and subjects that come within the range of one's experiences.
Critical Thinking Quiz #1 Chapters All key terms Critical Thinking defined The approaches to faith and reason Characteristics of a good critical thinker Three levels of thinking Barriers to critical thinking The role of reason in critical thinking How emotions affect critical thinking.
Critical thinking is the objective analysis of facts to form a judgment. The subject is complex, and several different definitions exist, which generally include the rational, skeptical, unbiased analysis, or evaluation of factual webkandii.comal thinking is self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored, and self-corrective thinking.
It presupposed assent to rigorous standards of. Critical thinking — in being responsive to variable subject matter, issues, and purposes — is incorporated in a family of interwoven modes of thinking, among them: scientific thinking, mathematical thinking, historical thinking, anthropological thinking, economic thinking, moral thinking, and philosophical thinking.
Critical thinking involves_____ one's own thinking. a analyzing, evaluating, and rationalizing c The standards of critical thinking must be applied to the elements as the critical thinker learns to develop intellectual traits. d The elements of critical thinking must be applied to the standards as the critical thinker learns to develop.
Universal intellectual standards are standards which must be applied to thinking whenever one is interested in checking the quality of reasoning about a problem, issue, or situation. To think critically entails having command of these standards.
To help students learn them, teachers should pose.