What are the Appeals Courts and Appellate Procedure? The Federal Appellate Structure United States Court of Appeals The federal appellate system consists of 13 federal circuits, each of which has one appellate court, called a court of appeals, and the United States Supreme Court. Within each of the federal circuits are several federal district courts that serve as trial courts for issues of federal concern.
The government imposed a media blackout on its counterterrorism operations in Northern Sinai.
Military prosecutors continued to send hundreds of civilians to military trials in cases related to political dissent, whether violent or peaceful. President al-Sisi has approved in August a five-year extension of a law that expanded, to an unprecedented extent, grounds for trying civilians before military courts.
Between October and Septemberauthorities sent at least 15, civilians to military courts including over children. Torture techniques included beatings, prolonged painful stress positions, and electrocutions.
Prosecutors rarely investigated torture claims and almost never dropped torture-tainted confessions. President al-Sisi declared a nation-wide state of emergency in April following church bombings claimed by the Islamic State that killed At time of writing, he had extended the state of emergency three times since then.
The Emergency Law gives unchecked powers to security forces to arrest and detain and allows the government to impose media censorship and order forced evictions.
The Egyptian Commission for Rights and Freedoms, an independent rights group, said that as of mid-August, persons had been disappeared over the previous 12 months and the whereabouts of at least 87 remained unknown.
These numbers do not include those who were found killed after having gone missing. National Security agents secretly detained lawyer Ibrahim Metwally, a co-founder of the same association, in September as he was leaving for a meeting of the United Nations Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances in Geneva.
In April two judges, Husham Rauf and Assam Abdi al-Gabber, faced disciplinary proceedings for their earlier efforts to advocate for a law prohibiting torture. An investigation continued against prominent human rights lawyer Negad al-Borai, with whom they worked on the project.
Human Rights Watch documented three incidents in in which individuals were killed in alleged shootouts after having been detained.
The government undertook no known investigations into these killings and provided little or no information to the families.
In some cases, the NSA delayed the delivery of the bodies and forced families to bury the dead relatives without funerals.
Death Penalty Since JulyEgyptian criminal courts have sentenced over people to death. Inthe Cassation Court upheld death sentences of 22 persons at least, who remain on death row, while more death sentences were awaiting final court decisions at time of writing.
Military courts have issued over 60 death sentences of civilians since July and 19 of those sentences were confirmed by the Supreme Military Court of Appeals in raising the number of civilians executed in military courts to Freedom of Association President al-Sisi ratified a new law on associations in May that, when implemented, could eliminate the little remaining space for civil society and end the work of decades-old human rights and other independent associations.
The law criminalizes the work of NGOs, providing for up to five-year prison terms for failing to adhere to its provisions such as operating or receiving funds without government approval. The new law gives organizations until May 23, to comply with its provisions or be dissolved. As of November, the government had not yet published implementing regulations.
As of October, the investigating judge had summoned 61 staff members for interrogation and charged 15 leading rights activists from four organizations. Authorities banned 27 from traveling outside the country. A criminal court also ordered asset freezes of 10 activists and 7 NGOs.
The placement led to asset freezes and brought the four outlets under the administration of the government-owned Akhbar al-Youm newspaper, according to Reporters Without Borders RSF.
According to RSF, as of late October, 17 journalists remained in jail. On October 21, journalist Hisham Gaafar had spent more than two years in pretrial detention, the maximum allowed by Egyptian law, on charges of receiving foreign funds for his institution, Mada Media Foundation, and joining a banned group.
Authorities denied him proper medical care for prostate disease. Ismail al-Iskandrani, a journalist who reported on Sinai, will have entered his third year of pretrial detention in December He faces charges of spreading false news and joining a banned group.
In May, the government blocked 21 websites of political groups and news outlets. As of October, the Association for Freedom of Thought and Expression, an independent Egyptian group, said that the number of websites blocked reached more thanincluding rights groups such as Human Rights Watch and RSF.
President al-Sisi signed parliamentary amendments to the protest law intended to meet a Supreme Constitutional Court ruling, but they did not affect the highly restrictive nature of the law, and peaceful gatherings remain effectively banned and penalized.
Security forces rounded up activists preemptively, ahead of anticipated protests. For example, at the beginning of April, security arrested political activists, mostly in home raids, ahead of the mid-June parliamentary approval of the controversial government decision to cede two Red Sea islands to Saudi Arabia.
Al-Sisi pardoned a total of prisoners in March and June, most of whom had been convicted in cases related to peaceful protests.
Extensive military operations encompassed more areas, including al-Arish, the capital of the governorate. Between January and Augustgovernment forces and armed group members were killed in Sinai, according to the Tahrir Institute for Middle East Policy, based on military statements that are hard to verify.
The fighting in Sinai has been marred by widespread government abuses including secret detentions, extrajudicial executions, and military trials of civilians. In many cases, attacks against government forces also killed civilians. Seven Christians were murdered in Sinai between January 30 and February 23 in attacks that bore the hallmarks of Islamic State killings, though no group claimed responsibility.
As a result, hundreds of Christian families fled to cities and towns outside Sinai, leaving almost no Christian families there.This essay has been submitted by a law student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.
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Under the doctrine of the separation of powers, the judiciary generally does not make statutory law (which is the responsibility of the legislature) or.
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